> 新闻 > 正文

艺缘拍卖精品推荐:宋鬲式三足香炉

2019-10-18 20:41 软广 分享
参与
 

炉是古代焚香烧炭之器,有熏炉、香炉、手脚炉之分。多用做生活燃香用具或佛前供器。陶瓷炉器的出现与其他常见陶瓷器型相比较晚,一般相信始于汉代。两晋南北朝时佛教传入中国,炉这种器型作为佛教礼器亦大大地流行起来。宋代炉的式样更为繁多,器物制作也更为明清时期炉体则趋向大形化。

 

 

鬲式炉一名系由仿周代铜鬲样式而来。《中国古陶瓷图典》鬲式炉条说:鬲式炉,炉式之一,流行于宋至明。宋代重视国家朝廷的祭祀礼仪,并将此视为巩固国家政权,维护和宣示中央权威的一项国策来推动与执行。当时烧制的鬲式炉,是根据朝廷官样《宣和博古图》等所规定的商、周青铜器鬲的款式标准烧制,提供给朝廷官府及贵族士大夫使用——文化积淀的名炉重器。

 

 在两宋瓷器中鬲式香炉是一个比较少见的品种。流传至今、时代最早的见诸文献的宋代陶瓷鬲式香炉是一件标注为“北宋官窑粉青鬲式炉”的瓷器,收录于台湾地区早年出版的《宋元陶瓷大全》一书中。在我国历史上,赵佶是一位极具艺术天赋且勤于创作的帝王。他自命风雅,能诗善画,并组织仿制商周秦汉青铜器,好古成癖。因此,北宋官窑首创本于三代铜器造型的鬲式香炉也是在情理之中的,这一艺术形式的移植或许正是赵佶的独创。

 

炉斜盘口,圆唇,短直颈,鼓腹较扁,口径与腹径相若,三锥形足。肩部有一周浅凸棱,腹部与三足相对处有三道明显的三角形凸棱,略有弯曲和起伏,从肩部延伸到足部。足部与腹部可见接痕一圈,足端平。内底可见螺旋纹。

 

 

龙泉窑,宋代六大窑系之一。在今浙江龙泉县,故名,属我国南方青瓷系统。它开创于三国两晋,结束于清代,生产瓷器的历史长达1600多年,是中国制瓷历史上最长的一个瓷窑系,它的产品畅销于亚洲、非洲、欧洲的许多国家和地区,影响十分深远。

 

在宋代名窑窑系中,龙泉青瓷窑系形式最晚,但它的成就却达到了中国青瓷烧造工艺的高峰。龙泉青瓷,以釉色美丽至极的粉青和梅子青釉闻名于世。粉青釉釉面光泽,柔和淡雅,滋润如玉;橡子青釉釉层厚而透明,苍翠欲滴,色调可与翡翠媲美。这两种釉色,被誉为“青瓷釉色与质地之美的顶峰”。特别是梅子青品种,仅在南宋一朝烧造,存世极少,又多为仿古铜器和玉器造型的古雅之品,弥足珍贵

 

龙泉窑早期烧造的青瓷,胎体厚重,原料淘炼不纯,釉层很薄,釉色多青中泛黄。在造型和纹饰方面,受越窑的影响较深。器物造型多模拟自然界物象,如瓜棱壶。尤其是在胎面上的刻划花装饰,变化多端,生动自然。进入南宋,以釉色取胜,釉层肥厚如凝脂,纯如美玉,以无纹片者为贵。北宋时以碗、盘、壶器为大宗,有少量的钵、盆、罐、瓶等器物。青瓷制作规整,器底旋削平滑。南宋晚期的器物种类更加丰富,除了日用器皿外,还增添了文房使用的砚、笔筒、笔架、水注、滴、模子和佛前供用的各式香炉及八仙塑像等。还有一批仿古铜器和玉器式样的觯、觚、鬲、投壶、琮等,具有鲜明的时代特色。这时期纹饰也发生了变化,早期那种刻划花装饰已消失,代之而起为堆点、浮雕装饰。

 

 宋代盛行复古,即所谓“追三代于鼎彝之间”,效仿青铜器的造型,鬲式炉受到了宫廷及文人士大夫的喜好及鉴赏,成为宋人“四般闲事”中不可或缺的器具。在诗作中有广泛的吟咏,如宋代郑刚中《焚香》诗作中曰:“五月黄梅烂,书润幽斋湿。柏子探枯花,松脂得明粒。覆火纸灰深,古鼎孤烟立。偷然便假寐,万虑无相及。” 晚明鉴赏名家文震亨《长物志》卷四·器具—香炉条载:“三代,秦、汉鼎彝,及官、哥、定窑、龙泉、宣窑,皆以备赏鉴,非日用所宜。”

艺缘有幸征集此件宋鬲式香炉。宋人仿古尚美,宋器美在古意盎然,此件龙泉窑三足炉,高:13.5cm,外口径:15.5cm,内口径:11.5cm,腹宽:23cm,三足间距:3.6cm,坠手感极强明显区别于一般窑系藏品的坠手感。折沿,短颈,扁圆腹,下承以三足。通体施青釉,三足底部显露酱黄色,龙泉窑鬲式炉之装烧工艺,与同期其他产品一样采用匣钵垫饼装烧工艺烧制而成。为了保证产品质量,同时也使产品与垫饼在燃烧高温的窑内收缩率保持一致,垫饼亦采用同质瓷土烧制而成。由于采用垫饼垫烧法,使用时垫饼垫放在龙泉窑鬲式炉三乳足足底,所以三乳足足底之釉必须刮去露胎,因此由于二次氧化的作用,其三乳足足底与青釉结合处均露出酱黄色。炉身金丝环绕,开片清晰可见,炉内侧底部死泡异常明显。龙泉青瓷素来是以如青玉一般的质感赢得世人称赞,龙泉窑釉色苍翠,北宋时多粉青色,南宋时呈葱青色,没有开片在器皿转折处 ,往往露胎呈现胎色,瓷釉厚润,装饰上很少刻花、划花,而流行用贴花、浮雕,例如在盘中常堆贴出双鱼图案,在瓶身上贴出缠枝牡丹图案。此龙泉窑三足炉,器型古雅清秀,曲线流畅,器身施满釉,釉色青翠,宛若春水,极得素雅匀净之美,为宋龙泉青瓷之佳品。乃上乘佳作,极具收藏及投资价值。

 

The furnace is an ancient incense burning charcoal, and it is divided into a smoke furnace, a incense furnace, and a hand-foot furnace. Use it as a living incense appliance or a pre-Buddha donor. The appearance of ceramic furnaces is later than other common ceramics, and it is generally believed that it began in the Han Dynasty. Buddhism was introduced into China during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, and this type of furnace was also greatly popular as a Buddhist ritual. The style of the furnace in the Song Dynasty was more numerous, and the production of artifacts was also more extensive in the Ming and Qing dynasties.

 

One of the furnace types came from the style of imitation of the Zhou Dynasty. The "Chinese Ancient Ceramic Code" furnace bar said: "The furnace furnace, one of the furnace styles, is popular in Song Zhiming. The Song Dynasty attached importance to the ritual rituals of the national court and regarded this as a national policy to consolidate the state power and maintain and declare the central authority to promote and implement it. The furnace that was burned at that time was fired according to the style standards of the Shang and Zhou bronze wares stipulated in the official sample of the court, such as Xuanhe Bogu, and was provided to the officials of the imperial court and the noble scholars. The famous furnace weight.

In the two Song Dynasty porcelain, the furnace is a relatively rare species. The earliest ceramic censer in the Song Dynasty, which has been circulated so far and the earliest in the times, is a porcelain labeled as "Northern Song Dynasty official kiln powder green furnace" and is included in the book "Song Yuan Ceramic Encyclopedia" published in Taiwan in the early years. In the history of our country, Zhao Kuo is an emperor who has great artistic talent and is diligent in his creation. He pretends to be elegant, able to paint poetry, and organizes imitation of Shangzhouqinhan bronze wares. Therefore, the Northern Song Dynasty official kiln was the first in the three generations of bronze style of the furnace is also in the case, this art form of transplantation may be Zhao Kuo's original creation.

 

Furnace inclined plate mouth, round lip, short straight neck, flat belly, caliber and abdominal diameter, tri-cone foot. The shoulders are slightly convex for a week, and there are three distinct triangular convex edges opposite the abdomen and tripods, slightly curved and undulating, extending from the shoulders to the feet. The foot and abdomen can be seen in a circle and the foot is flat. Spiral patterns can be seen on the inner bottom.

 

Longquan Kiln, one of the six major kiln systems in the Song Dynasty. In this Zhejiang Longquan County, hence the name, belongs to China's Southern celadon system. It was founded in the Three Kingdoms and the Jin Dynasty and ended in the Qing Dynasty. The history of porcelain production lasted for more than 1,600 years. It is the longest porcelain kiln system in the history of porcelain made in China. Its products are popular in many countries and regions in Asia, Africa, and Europe. The impact is very far-reaching.

 

In the famous kiln system of the Song Dynasty, Longquan Qing porcelain kiln system was the latest, but its achievements reached the peak of the Chinese celadon firing process. Longquan celadon is famous for its beautiful pastel and plum glaze. Pink glaze glaze luster, soft and elegant, moistening such as jade; The acorn green glaze layer is thick and transparent, and the green color wants to drop. The tone can be comparable to the emerald. These two glazes are known as "the peak of the beauty of celadon glaze and texture." In particular, the variety of plum green, which was burned only in the Southern Song Dynasty, was rare, and it was mostly an ancient and elegant product of imitation bronze and jade.

 

Longquan kiln early fired celadon, the fetal body is heavy, raw materials are not pure, the glaze layer is very thin, glaze color is green and yellowish. In terms of shape and decoration, it is deeply influenced by the kiln. The shape of artifacts simulates natural objects, such as melon pots. Especially on the tread of the carved flower decoration, varied, vivid and natural. Into the Southern Song Dynasty, to win the glaze color, glaze layer hypertrophy such as coagulation, pure as the United States jade, with no grain film is expensive. In the Northern Song Dynasty, bowls, plates, and pots were used as the bulk, and there were a small amount of utensils such as pots, pots, pots, and bottles. Celadon production is regular and the bottom of the device is smooth. The variety of artifacts in the late Southern Song Dynasty was even more abundant. In addition to daily utensils, various kinds of censer and Eight Immortals used in the room were added. There are also a number of imitation bronzes and jade styles of <UNK>, <UNK>, <UNK>, <UNK>, <UNK>, etc., with distinctive characteristics of the times. The decoration of this period has also changed. The early type of carved flower decoration has disappeared and replaced it as a pile point and relief decoration.

 

The Song Dynasty prevailed in retro, that is, the so-called "chasing three generations between Dingyi and Dingyi", emulating the shape of bronze wares. The furnace was favored and appreciated by the court and literary scholars and became an indispensable instrument in the Song Dynasty. There are a wide range of poems in the poems, such as Songdaizhenggang's "Incense" poem: "May Huangmeilan, Shu Run Youzhai wet. The cypress probes the dead flowers and the turpentine gets clear grains. Covered with paper ash, Gu Ding stood alone. Indulge in sleep, never worry about the phase. "In the late Ming Dynasty, the famous master Wen Zhenheng's" Long Things "volume 4: Appliances-Incense article contains:" Three generations, Qin, Han Dingyi, and officials, brothers, Dingyao, Longquan, Xuanyao, are all prepared for appreciation, not for daily use. appropriate. "

 

Art margin is lucky to collect this piece of song yi-style censer. Song people are antique and beautiful, Songqimei in the ancient meaning, this piece of Longquan kiln three-foot furnace, height: 13.5 cm, external diameter: 15.5 cm, internal diameter: 11.5 cm, abdominal width: 23cm, three-foot spacing: 3.6 cm, falling hand feel very strong distinct from the general kiln collection of the pendant feel. Fold, short neck, flat round abdomen, under the three feet. Through the body to apply green glaze, the bottom of the three-legged yellow sauce, Longquan kiln furnace firing process, and the same as other products in the same period, using the casserole cake firing process fired. In order to ensure the quality of the product, the product is also consistent with the shrinkage rate of the cake in the kiln where the high temperature is burned. The cake is also made of homogeneous porcelain. Due to the use of pad cake pad firing method, when used, pad cake pads are placed on the bottom of the three milk feet of the Longquan Kiln <UNK>  type furnace. Therefore, the glaze on the bottom of the three milk feet must be scratched off. Therefore, due to the effect of secondary oxidation, the three milk feet The bottom and the green glaze combine to expose the yellow sauce. The furnace body is surrounded by gold wire, the film is clearly visible, and the dead bubble at the bottom of the furnace is unusually obvious. Longquan celadon has always won the praise of the world with its general texture like turquoise. Longquan kiln is green in glaze, pink and blue in the Northern Song Dynasty, and green in the Southern Song Dynasty. There is no open film at the turning point of the vessel, and the tire is often exposed. Thick glaze, rarely engraved, cut flowers, Popular use of stickers, reliefs, for example, in the plate often pile posted Pisces pattern, on the bottle to post twig Peony pattern. This Longquan Kiln three-foot furnace, the type of ancient elegant show, smooth curve, full of glaze, glaze green, like spring water, extremely elegant and uniform beauty, is the best product of Songlongquan. It is a masterpiece and has great collection and investment value.

 

 

 


洛阳信息港版权所有